The website of the Tosno Museum of Local History and Tradition Leningrad Region says as of 12 Sep "An exhibit section is devoted to Boris Numerov - a prominent astronomer, land-surveyor and geophysicist, a creator of various astronomic instruments and means of minerals exploring.

The Coming Era of Nanotechnology. This paper surveys some of the unique ethical issues in creating superintelligence, and discusses what motivations we ought to give a superintelligence, and introduces some cost-benefit considerations relating to whether the development of superintelligent machines ought to be accelerated or retarded.

Thabit also worked in number theory where he is especially famous for his theorem about amicable numbers. Anaximander is famous for astronomy, cartography and sundials, and also enunciated a theory of evolution, that land species somehow developed from primordial fish.

While the dimensions of the subspaces of projective geometries are a discrete set the non-negative integersthe dimensions of the elements of a continuous geometry can range continuously across the unit interval [0,1].

He was perhaps the first great mathematician to take the important step of emphasizing real numbers rather than either rational numbers or geometric sizes.

One consideration that should be taken into account when deciding whether to promote the development of superintelligence is that if superintelligence is feasible, it will likely be developed sooner or later. He worked on the theory of area-preserving transformations, with applications to map-making.

Development of the stored-program concept[ edit ] The mathematician Alan Turingwho had been alerted to a problem of mathematical logic by the lectures of Max Newman at the University of Cambridgewrote a paper in entitled On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblemwhich was published in the Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society.

If a superintelligence has a definite, declarative goal-structure with a clearly identified top goal, then the above argument applies. It also seems perfectly possible to have a superintelligence whose sole goal is something completely arbitrary, such as to manufacture as many paperclips as possible, and who would resist with all its might any attempt to alter this goal.

Von Neumann's work argued that the "problem is essentially group-theoretic in character": We were preparing a firing table for each gun, with maybe 1, simple trajectories. Von Neumann algebra Von Neumann introduced the study of rings of operators, through the von Neumann algebras.

Stepanov I am shivering a little bit. In Junea letter arrives for Eckert from V. Was Riazankin a spy.

Turing and a small staff of specialists, and, bythe preliminary planning was sufficiently advanced to warrant the establishment of the special group already mentioned.

Many more are listed with only initials; some others by Romanized Chinese name which generally does not indicate gender. Changing the program of a fixed-program machine requires rewiring, restructuring, or redesigning the machine.

The design of this machine inspired at least half a dozen machines now being built in America, all known affectionately as "Johniacs. Referring to this system, Gauss was later to exclaim "To what heights would science now be raised if Archimedes had made that discovery. It is conserved by perspective mappings "perspectivities" and ordered by inclusion.

Here is a diatonic-scale song from Ugarit which predates Pythagoras by eight centuries. Early von Neumann-architecture computers[ edit ] The First Draft described a design that was used by many universities and corporations to construct their computers. For this reason Thales may belong on this list for his historical importance despite his relative lack of mathematical achievements.

Gersonides was also an outstanding astronomer. For his texts and theorems, he may be called the "Father of Trigonometry;" he was first to properly state and prove several theorems of planar and spherical trigonometry including the Law of Sines, and the spherical Law of Tangents.

The next question was whether it provided definitive answers to all mathematical questions that could be posed in it, or whether it might be improved by adding stronger axioms that could be used to prove a broader class of theorems.

Given the enormity of the consequences of superintelligence, it would make sense to give this prospect some serious consideration even if one thought that there were only a small probability of it happening any time soon.

The positive solution for spaces of dimension at most two, and the negative solution for higher dimensions, comes from the fact that the Euclidean group is a solvable group for dimension at most two, and is not solvable for higher dimensions.

Disease, poverty, environmental destruction, unnecessary suffering of all kinds: Zermelo—Fraenkel set theory provided a series of principles that allowed for the construction of the sets used in the everyday practice of mathematics, but they did not explicitly exclude the possibility of the existence of a set that belongs to itself.

Archimedes and Newton might be the two best geometers ever, but although each produced ingenious geometric proofs, often they used non-rigorous calculus to discover results, and then devised rigorous geometric proofs for publication. Development of the stored-program concept[ edit ] The mathematician Alan Turingwho had been alerted to a problem of mathematical logic by the lectures of Max Newman at the University of Cambridgewrote a paper in entitled On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblemwhich was published in the Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society.

For one day, the hand computers kept up: The concept behind the first malicious computer programs was described years ago in the Computer Recreations column of Scientific American.

The Columbia University Statistical Laboratory (location unknown) includes Hollerith tabulating, punching, and sorting machines, Burroughs adding machines, Brunsviga and Millionaire calculators (the latter was the first device to perform direct multiplication), plus reference works such as math and statistical tables.

Prof. Robert E. Chaddock (Statistics Dept) was in charge. Von Neumann's War [John Ringo, Travis Taylor] on gabrielgoulddesign.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.

New series. Mars is changing. Seemingly overnight the. The von Neumann architecture—also known as the von Neumann model or Princeton architecture—is a computer architecture based on a description by the mathematician and physicist John von Neumann and others in the First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC.

That document describes a design architecture for an electronic digital computer with. A processing unit that contains an arithmetic. List of the Greatest Mathematicians ever and their Contributions.

in: R.A.

Meyers (ed.), Encyclopedia of Physical Science & Technology (3rd ed.), (Academic Press, New York, ). Cybernetics and Second-Order Cybernetics Francis Heylighen Free University of Brussels Cliff Joslyn Los Alamos National Laboratory. Exhibit Design and Development Team Ton Luong, Project Lead, Concept Design & Prototyping Ganna Boyko, Graphics & Frontend Development Edward Lau, Backend Development.

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When did the term 'computer virus' arise? - Scientific American